In general the conduct of clinical trials is critically important for the advancement, and improvement of medical care. Dr. Ornstein is involved in a variety of diagnostic and therapeutic clinical trials in the area of Urologic Oncology. Several of these involve collecting either urine or blood from patients and then using these patient derived body fluids in the laboratory to help devise better methods for early detection of prostate cancer. Other studies are aimed at improving robotic surgical techniques used for the treatment of all types of urologic cancers. In addition, Dr. Ornstein participates in several therapeutic (chemotherapies and / or targeted biologic therapies) for kidney, bladder and prostate cancers. The over-reaching goal for all of these trials is to improve the diagnosis and treatment of patients with kidney, bladder and prostate cancers. All of these trials have been reviewed extensively and approved by the institutional review board (IRB). The risks to subjects are minimal or non-existent.